Electronics is a branch of physics and technology that deals with the study of the behavior and movement of electrons in different materials, including semiconductors, conductors, vacuums, and gases. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, from basic electronics theory and circuit design to the development of advanced electronic devices and systems.

The materials are the naturally occurring substances found on Earth that constitute the raw materials upon which our global society exists. Earth materials are vital resources that provide the basic components for life, agriculture, and industry.

Energy bands consisting of a large number of closely spaced energy levels exist in crystalline materials. The bands can be thought of as the collection of the individual energy levels of electrons surrounding each atom. Remember that the energy of free electron is changing continuously.

Semiconductors are materials that have properties in between those of normal conductors and insulators; they are often produced by doping. Semiconductors are divided into two broad categories:

The electronic components are very important to construct a Electronic circuits. So to understand a electronics circuit, we should have the knowledge about the every components on that circuit. From here we going to see the basic working principle and usage of some electronics components subsequently.

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. A conductor has low resistance, while an insulator has much higher resistance. But every resistor has a fixed value of resistance that would have printed as a color code or in other methods.

Let's see what happen when the resistors are connected in series. How to calculate total resistance if n number of resistors are connected in series as shown in figure.

Similarly, Let's see what happen in current and voltage when the resistors are connected in parallel. How to calculate total resistance if n number of resistors are connected in parallel as shown in figure.

There are many types of resistors are available in the market according to their working principle, type of material used to manufacture, making procedure, and their applications. The classification list is as shown below.

There are many types of Resistor available in the market which can be used in electrical and electronic circuits to control the flow of current. All resistors have some of "resistive" or "resistance" value. Resistors are available in a range of different resistance values from fractions of an ohm to millions of ohms.

A capacitor is an electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It consists of two conductive plates separated by a non-conductive material or dielectric. When a voltage is applied across the plates, it creates an electric field between them, and electrons are stored on the plates, creating a charge. The capacitance of a capacitor, measured in farads (F), is a measure of its ability to store charge. Capacitors are used in many electronic circuits for a variety of purposes, such as storing energy, filtering noise, and blocking DC while allowing AC signals to pass. They are also used to smooth out power supplies, bypass signals, and tune oscillators. Capacitors come in different types and sizes, each with their own characteristics and applications, and they are essential components in many electronic circuits.

An inductor is an electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when current flows through it. It is also known as a coil or reactor. An inductor is made up of a conducting wire that is wound into a coil or helix shape, and the energy is stored in the magnetic field that surrounds the coil. Inductors are passive components and are commonly used in electronic circuits to filter, smooth, or store energy. They are also used in transformers, motors, generators, and other electrical devices. The amount of energy that an inductor can store is proportional to its inductance, which is measured in henries. Inductors are similar to capacitors in that they can store energy, but while capacitors store energy in an electric field, inductors store energy in a magnetic field.

In electronics, a transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through electromagnetic induction. It consists of two or more coils of wire, which are wound around a common magnetic core. When an alternating current flows through one coil (called the primary), it creates a changing magnetic field around the coil. This changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the other coil (called the secondary), which is connected to a load.